IOFPR Home Publication Books Research outline,   People,   Unification Project II,   Unification Project I, Superfluid Project, Scientific Board Join IOFPR,   Courses by IOFPR,   Collaboration/Links,   Donate   Earlier Events/2005 Earlier Events/2004   Earlier Events/2003   Earlier Events/2000-02 ZJ's Early Project  Proposals: 2002 VR   2001 NFR   2001 KVA    ZJ Unif papers 2000- 02 subs/commun.'s with Profs BJ, NA,JC,  SS,DG.  MemC.  IOFPR Announcement.



Unification of the Four Fundamental Forces



           IOFPR 2023 Public Announcement


           Gravity and General Relativity

                       a.  Background

                       b.  Related Publications

           2  Weak Force

           3  Strong Force (scheme only)





Outline of A Unified Theory based on (Relativistic) Quantum Electromagnetism for:


1. Gravity and General Relativity based on Quantum Electromagnetism


Newtonian gravity: Consider two simple single charged matter particles 1,2 of  masses M1, M2, and charges q1,q2 of any signs, that are separated at a distance r in a dielectric vacuum medium (Fig 1).  Either particle, i,  is according to the IED model composed of charge qi of zero rest mass, but oscillating at characteristic frequency i, hence having a mass Mi=i/c2 The internal total  electromagnetic radiation fields E1, B1 of 1, generated by its charge q1 , induce in the vacuum dielectric depolarisation radiation (DR) fields,  that are propagated at time t to the location  r of particle 2 as Ep1(r,t), Bp1(r,t);  Ep1=-E1, Bp1= -Ep1× c/c2, where  is the susceptibility of the dielectric vacuum.

In the DR fields Ep1(r,t), Bp1(r,t),  the charge q2 of particle 2 is acted on a Lorentz magnetic force, or DR Lorentz force

     F12=   q2 vp2 × Bp1 ,      vp2(r, t)= (q2Ep1/M2)dt

See Fig 1. And conversely an attractive Lorentz magnetic force F21 is acted on q1 due to the radiation fields of charge q2.  The mutual mean DR Lorentz force n is, for  q1,q2=±e,  


where is the linear mass density of the vacuum. 

Fig 1



         1) F is always attractive irrespective the signs of the charges, has an inverse square formula, and is capable to  penetrate through matter unhinded. F resembles in all respects  Newton's  gravity; hence represents Newton's gravitational constant.

          2) Epi, Bi  make up a gravitational wave, as a vacuuon dipole wave, in the vacuum at the velocity of light c. and do not interact with matter.

         3) Since the electromagnetic fields Ei,Bi are  quantized, it  follows that  the gravitational force F  and the gravitational fields are quantized (Pub 25).

         4) The gravitational force and fields have their origins in electromagnetism.

          5) A corresponding scheme leads also to   a prediction of a Doebner-Goldin form of self gravity (See Pub 19).


General Relativity: (to be added.)





Professor B Johansson has through the post doc funding + researches in 1995-2000  paved the way for the present unification research.


-Professor H-D D spent much his time at every annual QTS or ICQGM conference during 2006-2012, including a couple of days visiting him and his wife at his house in Munich, discussing JXZJ's unification research constructively extensively with jxzj.


Scientist P-I Johansson has given continued private funding support for the unification research.


-Professor M B has had harmonious/ constructive /insightful communications concerning physics at every meeting with jxzj. 


-Professor  I L invited jxzj for constructive discussions and giving a seminar at his group (mostly young graduates). One of the number of constructive questions at the seminar/discussion has motivated a more precise treatment of the masses of proton and electron in the vacuuonic vacuum.


-Professors N A  has given encouraging words already at the earliest stage of the development of JXZJ’s IED model and unification scheme.

Moral supports also from Professors/Drs CB, KS, P-IJ, RD.



Related Publications /Documentations:

[1] A Theory of Gravity and General Relativity based on Quantum Electromagnetism,   ISQS25, 2017.  Preprint: arXiv:physics/0612096 [physics.gen-ph] abs, pdf

[2] J X Zheng-Johansson, with  P-I Johansson, Gravity between Internally Electrodynamic Particles (updated), physics/0411245  

[2b] J X Zheng-Johansson, with  P-I Johansson,  et al,  "Depolarization Radiation force in a Dielectric Medium. Its Analogy with Gravity*," Quantum Theory and Symmetries IV, 2, Supp Bulg J Phys 33,Ed V.K. Dobrev, Heron Press, 2006, 771-780.

[3] Zheng-Johansson, Microcopic Theory of Gravity (Zheng-Johansson’s ealy (Jan, 2004) draft edition of the gravity paper arxiv:0411245, written as one book chapter)

[4] Zheng-Johansson’s Gravity Time Line. (see under

[5] Zheng-Johansson’s 2002 VR project funding application (loc KTH), title “Unification Scheme of the Four Forces“.

[6] Zheng-Johansson’s 2001 May NFR project funding application (loc KTH), title “Fundamental Construction of Material Particles”

[7] Zheng-Johansson’s 2001 Feb KVA project funding application (loc KTH), title “Fundamental Construction of Material Particles”

[8] Zheng-Johansson 2000-02 Papers /Communications on Unification Scheme

See further


Unification Project I


2. Weak Force based on Relativistic Quantum Electromagnetism

            (Outline to be added.)


Full papers:

      - A Microscopic Theory of the Neutron,   J Phys Conf Ser 670, 012056 (2016), arxiv:1111.3123

      - A Quantum Electromagnetic Theory of the Muons, Pions, and Their Emitting Particles (I) J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1416 012043 (2019), Proc Int Conf Integr Sys & Quant Symm ISQS, Prague, 2019

       - A Quantum Electromagnetic Theory of the Intermediate Vector Bosons and the Higgs, arxiv1111.3123v6 (Part D).

QTS12, Prague, 2023.






3. Strong Force based on Quantum Electromagnetism


            (To be added. See comment in this paper )