Unification of Classical, Quantum,

and Relativistic Mechanics





Research outline


Unification Project II

Unification Project I

Superfluid Project

Scientific Board


Courses by IOFPR



Earlier Events/2005

Earlier Events/2004

Earlier Events/2003

Earlier Events/2000-02

ZJ's Early Project  Proposals:

2002 VR

2001 NFR 

2001 KVA 

ZJ Unif papers 2000- 02 subs/commun.'s with Profs BJ, NA,JC, SS,DG


1. Outline                                                                                   

The internally electrodynamic (IED) particle model  (earlier termed a basic particle formation scheme) is developed by Dr Zheng-Johansson based on overall experimental observations as input information


A recent critical review of the key experiments suggests that the IED process underlies the basic particle equations and properties not just sufficiently but also necessarily. 

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The IED particle model briefly states: A single-charged material particle, like the electron, proton, etc., is constituted of (i) an oscillatory point charge q of a  characteristic frequency W and zero rest-mass, and (ii) the resulting electromagnetic waves Ej,Bj's or jj's extending between reflecting boundaries (Fig.1a). The waves are said to be  subject to a Doppler effect if the oscillatory charge as a whole, the source, is in motion; q is an electric charge said in the usual sense and thus obeys the basic  laws of electrodynamics; the total energy of oscillatory charge or equivalently of the electromagnetic waves is associated with a (dynamical) inertial mass obeying the usual laws of mechanics.




Fig.1 An IED Model Particle. j, j (=Ej/Eq) are dimensionless electromagnetic wave functions from solving Maxwell's equations; j(=†,‡) indicates Doppler effect due to source motion; y=j +j =exp[i(kdX-wT)] identifies with de Broglie wave; w=W/(1-u2/c2)1/2.  

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When addressing the origin of mass and the like, the vacuum is represented as a polarisable dielectric, so the charge moving in it will be resisted by a medium-charge interaction force said to identify with the usual inertial force.


Overall experimental observations suggest that [1a,g] the vacuum is filled of electrically neutral but polarisable building entities, called vacuuons (Fig. 2), each composed of a spinning charge +e at the core and -e on the spherical envelope bound strongly each other by a Coulomb force. This vacuum will be polarised about an external charge, and builds up with it an electrostatic potential, which in turn facilitates the restoring force to the charge oscillation.






Fig.2 Schematic vacuum structure.



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A set of well-known basic particle equations and properties become predictable based on first-principles solutions for the IED particles. Several key solutions achieved include the de Broglie phase wave, de Broglie relations, Schrodinger equation/Dirac equation, mass, mass-energy relation, single particle self interference, electromagnetic radiation and absorption, (as part of Proj II:) Newton’s inverse-square law of gravity, Einstein's General Relativity derived from quantum electro-magnetism, and equation of the weak force.  These equations or properties have long been broadly experi-mentally validated or demonstrated.


See further related Publications.

2. Background

Collaborators: Professor B Johansson has through the post doc funding + researches in 1995-2000  paved the way for the present unification research;  Professor GtH has motivated the research on GR and extension of Newton's gravity to between light and matter particles; P-I Johansson has given continued funding support for the unification research; Professors C Burdik,  V Dobrev, H D have provided opportunities for presenting the research at conferences ; Professors NA (one of firsts to see the meaningfulness of the unification research), MB (several communications with kind words), IL (); Profs JR Clem (), RL (wrote forward for unif book 1), CB (); .

Professors B Johansson and NA were the first professors who saw the significances of the de Broglie wave solutions for the IED particle (2000-02) and polarizable dielectric vacuum.


Dr JX Zheng-Johansson (JXZJ) is the initiator and scientific sponsor of the unification project I-II, is responsible for the conceptions and developments of the model/theories/schemes, and is responsible for  the writings of the scientific papers and books within the projects.

        The Unification Projects began in 2000, spin-off from Dr Zheng-Johansson's superfluid theory. The original motivation was to give a more comprehensive representation of  quantum particles, as the superfluid He II atom is, in respect to quantization, wave phenomena, and excitations, etc.  

        The initial pivotal experimental input used for conceiving the IED particle model were the Davison-Germer and GP Thompson  experiments demonstrating (free) electron diffraction, hence the de Broglie wave and relations, the experimental facts of the convertibility  (by absorption/ emission) between matter particle's thermal energy and electrometric radiation, and that the quantization of  matter wave and electromagnetic wave share the common formulas of "Planck constant h /(deB or EM) wavelength" (or h ´ (deB or EM wave) frequency". 

       After a concentrated period of interatively going through possible schemes/solutions and contrasts with exp observations/ overall properties during spring--summer() 2000,  when I (JXZJ) eventually produced with mathematical solution a de Broglie phase wave- a traveling plane wave with a de Broglie wavelength, "I knew I had a particle scheme in hand".  (to be extended.)

        At a later stage at the vacuum-matter interface, for justifying the IED particle as the unique candidate and that the electrometric waves and their generating oscillatory charge are fully responsible for the de Broglie phase wave function, mass and total energy of a particle,  the pair production and annihilation experiments (involved in  tracer diffusion exp, introduced by Professor K Skold, as part JXZJ's PhD thesis work at Studvik) provide a crucial indication. 

        The unification project has been privately funded by scientist P-I Johansson who is as author on a number of JXZJ's (superfluid, unification) papers by the initial agreement of no asseveration of the scientific credentials of JXZJ's research but as acknowledgement to his funding/moral support only.   Funding exceptions: two conf travel grants (2007) from VR, a Conf fund donation (2003) from Studvik Nuclear. Professors B Johansson and NA  were the first professors who saw the significances of the de Broglie wave solutions for the IED particle  (2000-02)  and polarizable dielectric vacuum. 

        See further Projects I-II/related papers for acknowledgements to the discussions, communications with other physicist, scientists.